Barbara Tversky 2005 Cambridge Chapter 10 in The Cambridge Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning, K. Holyoak and R. Morrison eds.
Four types of mental spaces are considered in this article, differentiated by the functions that they serve. The space of the body subserves proprioception and action; it is divided by body parts, with perceptually salient and functionally significant parts more accessible than others. The space around the body subserves immediate perception and action; it is conceived of in three dimensions in terms of relations of objects to the six sides of the body, front/back, head/feet, left/right. The space of navigation subserves that; it is constructed in memory from multi-modal pieces, typically as a plane. The reconstruction generates systematic errors. The space of external representations, of pictures, maps, charts, and diagrams, serves as cognitive aids to memory and information processing. To serve those ends, graphics schematize and may distort information.