Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education
Arthur W. Chickering, Zelda F. Gamson 1987 AAHE Bulletin p3-7 Mar 1987
Seven principles that can help to improve undergraduate education are identified. Based on research on college teaching and learning, good practice in undergraduate education: (1) encourages contacts between students and faculty; (2) develops reciprocity and cooperation among students; (3) uses active learning techniques; (4) gives prompt feedback; (5) emphasizes time on task; (6) communicates high expectations; and (7) respects diverse talents and ways of learning. Examples of approaches that have been used in different kinds of colleges in the last few years are described. In addition, the implications of these principles for the way states fund and govern higher education and for the way institutions are run are briefly discussed. Examples of good approaches include: freshman seminars on important topics taught by senior faculty; learning groups of five to seven students who meet regularly during class to solve problems set by the instructor; active learning using structured exercises, discussions, team projects, and peer critiques, as well as internships and independent study; and mastery learning, contract learning, and computer-assisted instruction approaches, which required adequate time on learning.